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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. To extend research demonstrating that intoxicated men high in hostility toward women report stronger intentions to use coercive condom use resistance CUR tactics to have unprotected sex by examining the role of women's condom request style. Following the woman's request to use a condom, intentions to engage in coercive CUR tactics were assessed. Generalized linear models with gamma distributions assessed the 3-way interaction of men's hostility toward women, beverage condition alcohol or soberand the woman's condom request style indirect, direct, or insistent.
The 3-way interaction between hostility toward women, beverage condition, and indirect condom request vs. Men high in hostility toward women reported stronger CUR intentions after experiencing an indirect condom request, when sober or intoxicated, and after a direct condom request when intoxicated. Men high in hostility toward women reported the weakest CUR intentions when sober following an insistent or direct condom request. Men high in hostility toward women pose a threat to women's sexual safety, particularly when intoxicated or following an indirect condom request.
Hostility toward women and alcohol consumption should be addressed in sexual risk prevention programs. Pending further replication, women should be informed of the relative effectiveness of using insistent condom requests. Men's sexually coercive and violent behavior toward women is a topic of national public health concern. Coercive CUR involves situations in which the woman has consented to sexual intercourse, but it is predicated on the use of a condom, thus differentiating these behaviors from those which meet the legal definition of sexual assault.
The goal of the current research is to identify how men's intentions to use coercive CUR tactics differ based on individual e. Research on men's CUR tactics focused initially on identifying the types and prevalence of CUR behaviors that men report using in their relationships. Davis and colleagues b found nearly one-third of young men Almost a quarter Identifying risk factors for men's coercive CUR behaviors is essential for informing prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing these behaviors and promoting condom use among men.
One way in which men who are hostile toward women can exert power over them is to resist using a condom during sex when their partner wants to use one. Two separate studies have identified men's hostility toward women as a key risk factor for CUR behavior. In another study by Davis and colleagues blatent profile analysis was used to identify constellations of risk factors related to men's self-reported CUR tactics Davis et al.
Men with Women want sex Edgar or high levels of hostility toward women and negative condom use attitudes reported engaging in CUR tactics more frequently than men low in hostility toward women and with more positive attitudes towards condoms. Mean values suggested that men with the highest level of hostility toward women were especially likely to use coercive CUR tactics including deception, condom sabotage, and physical force, although these means did not ificantly differ from men with moderate levels of hostility toward women Davis et al.
There is a well-established link between alcohol consumption and risky sexual intentions and behavior Cooper, Intoxicated men perceive fewer potential negative consequences associated with condom nonuse, report a greater willingness to engage in sex without a condom, and endorse greater justifications for having unprotected sex than sober men Davis et al. As well, experimental alcohol administration research has shown that intentions to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse increase linearly with blood alcohol content BACs from.
Recent research focusing specifically on CUR intentions has found that acute alcohol intoxication is directly associated with stronger justifications for using CUR and stronger CUR intentions Abbey et al. Using methods similar to the current study, Davis and colleagues found that intoxicated men report ificantly stronger intentions to engage in CUR behaviors than do sober men.
As well, Davis and colleagues demonstrated that group differences could be explained by a ificant increase from baseline to post-beverage consumption in intentions among intoxicated men, but not sober men. Abbey and colleagues hypothesized that acute Women want sex Edgar intoxication would increase men's justifications for using coercive CUR in response to a direct condom request from a woman, but only for men high in hostility.
In support of their hypothesis, men's hostility was ificantly positively related to men's justifications for engaging in CUR tactics for intoxicated, but not sober, men. The current study extends this research by examining the synergistic effects of hostility toward womenrather than general hostility, and acute alcohol intoxication on men's intentions to engage in coercive CUR behaviors. The current study also considers how intoxicated men high in hostility toward women respond differently to varying types of condom request, compared to men without these risk factors.
Condom use negotiation is a complex process, often involving verbal and nonverbal communication tactics from both partners. Women self-report that they are most likely to use direct and insistent condom request tactics with their partners and that these tactics are highly effective at persuading a resistant partner to use a condom during sexual intercourse Bird et al. In support of this assertion, most women report that their direct and insistent requests are met with compliance Edgar et al. The prevalence of men's coercive CUR suggests that a subset of those women who reported their partner was compliant unfortunately may have been lied to, manipulated, or deceived by their partner.
In one of a few studies to examine men's perceptions of women's condom requests, Edgar and colleagues found that the majority of their male sample said they would comply with a direct condom request. In laboratory analogue experiments George et al. Brehm's Reactance Theory Brehm, offers a theoretical explanation for such retaliatory behavior. According to Reactance Theory, when an individual's perceived freedoms are threatened or eliminated e. Women want sex Edgar magnitude of reactance depends on 1 the strength of the threat to the individual freedom or 2 the individual's propensity for reactance, Women want sex Edgar most likely the combination of the two i.
In the current study, the strength of threat is experimentally manipulated through the type of condom use request insistent, direct, and indirectand hostility toward women serves as an indicator of the individual's propensity for reactance. The current study utilizes survey and experimental methods to examine how men's hostility toward women and acute alcohol intoxication predict their intentions to engage in coercive CUR tactics i.
Hypothesis 1: Men with higher hostility toward women will report stronger CUR intentions than men with lower hostility toward women. Hypothesis 3: Finally, we hypothesize a 3-way interaction between hostility toward women, beverage condition and condom request condition on men's CUR intentions. Consistent with Abbey and colleagues' findings and Reactance Theory, we hypothesize that, following a direct or insistent condom request from the woman, intoxicated men high in hostility toward women will report stronger coercive CUR intentions, than intoxicated men low in hostility toward women or sober men high or low in hostility toward women.
Also, within the hypothesized three-way interaction, we expected — based on Reactance Theory — men low in hostility toward women and men in the indirect condom request condition to report weaker intentions to engage in coercive CUR tactics. Participants included men, ages 21 to 30 years old.
Men were eligible if they were non-problem drinkers, had at least one instance of unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a woman in the past year, and were not in a long-term monogamous relationship. Men were recruited from an urban community using online and print advertisements targeted toward younger audiences.
The advertisement sought single male drinkers of all ethnicities, agedto participate in a research study on male-female social interactions. Interested individuals called the laboratory to complete a screening survey over the telephone to assess their eligibility for the study.
When eligible participants arrived at the laboratory, a trained male experimenter checked their photo ID to verify their age and made sure that their blood alcohol concentration BAC was 0. The experimenter asked if they adhered to the following pre-visit requirements: a not driving to the laboratory; b not consuming a caloric beverage or food in the past 3 hours; and c not consuming alcohol or using recreational or over-the-counter drugs in the past 24 hours.
Once verified, the experimenter administered informed consent. Afterward, participants completed the survey measures in a private room by entering their responses into a computer Datstat Illume, version 4. All procedures and measures were approved by the university's Human Subjects Division institutional review board prior to data collection.
Prior to the alcohol administration experiment, participants completed background questionnaires, which included demographics and the assessment of hostility toward women. The background questionnaire took approximately one hour to complete. A mean of the 10 items was computed. Following the background measures, participants were randomly ased to a beverage condition: 1 an alcohol dose. Alcoholic beverages consisted of one part proof vodka to three parts orange juice, and breathalyzer tests were administered every 4 minutes until a target BAC of.
This target was selected so that participants read the experimental story and experienced the experimental manipulation while on the ascending limb of the BAC curve. After reaching the target BAC, participants read a sexually explicit scenario which was written in the second person.
Participants were instructed to project themselves into the story. In the first sexual encounter, the protagonist meets Erica at a party where they have consensual casual sexual intercourse using a condom. In the second sexual encounter a couple of nights later, the protagonist runs into Erica at a local bar. After the bar, they go back to his place where they again have consensual sexual intercourse, but on this occasion they do not use a condom. In the current interaction, Erica invites him to her apartment to watch a movie.
Participants are told to project themselves into the story at their current level of intoxication; thus, to be consistent, during this encounter he is offered either a soda or a mixed drink of soda and alcohol matched to his ased beverage condition i. The action progresses from kissing to removing their clothes, becoming increasingly erotic and describing consensual explicit sexual activity. Erica then makes a request to use a condom Condom Request 1and the protagonist realizes that he does not have one.
The story continues with Erica suggesting that she go search for a condom. Once she finds a condom, she and the protagonist continue to engage in consensual explicit sexual activities, including genital fondling but not intercourse. At this point, Erica once again makes a condom use request Condom Request 2.
The final part of the story includes more explicit, erotic sexual activity, leading up to but not including penetration, and a final request from Erica to use a condom Condom Request 3. The scenario ends with only consensual sexual activity having occurred between the participant and the woman. Upon arriving in the lab, participants were randomly ased to one of three condom request conditions: Indirect, Direct, or Insistent.
Based on research suggesting that using a combination of verbal and nonverbal tactics is common Lam et al. The indirect request condition included the woman asking her partner if he thinks they should use a condom, making nonverbal gestures toward the condom, and subtly suggesting they should use a condom.
The direct request condition included an explicit verbal request to use a condom and handing the condom to the man. Finally, the insistent request condition included the woman making a statement that there will be no sex unless a condom is used while she opens the condom package and hands it to the man.
See Table 1 for a detailed description of the verbal and nonverbal cues. Intentions to use coercive CUR tactics were assessed after the final condom use request made by Erica, using 13 items from the emotional manipulation e. Items asked participants to rate how likely they would be Women want sex Edgar employ a CUR tactic at this point in the situation in order to get Erica to have sex without a condom.
Response options ranged from 1 very unlikely to 7 very likely. Participants who received alcohol were debriefed and then released once their BAC dropped to below. Two participants withdrew from the study after they arrived at the lab. Five participants were removed from the data set because they provided unreliable data. Four men felt ill after consuming the alcoholic beverage and did not complete the dependent measures.
An additional participant was removed because he was missing responses on the outcome measure. At the end of the experiment, participants were asked to rate the woman's behavior in terms of how it aligned with their experimentally ased condom request style condition.
Approximately one third of participants were in each of the three condom request style conditions: One hundred and fifty Participants in the alcohol condition had an average BAC of. After completing the experimental story and all post-story questionnaires, participants' average BAC was.
All of the following items had response options ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. A quarter Sixty-five percent Across all participants, 8. Although low, these levels are comparable to those observed in Abbey et al. Although the mean was low, the full range of scores was endorsed.
The distribution was ificantly and strongly positively skewed. To for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, generalized linear modeling GzLM with gamma distributions and log link function was used to examine the relationships among hostility toward women, beverage condition, and condom request condition with coercive CUR intentions. To ensure that the gamma distribution was an appropriate distribution for the data, a model with a linear distribution was compared to a model using the gamma distribution.
Hostility toward women was mean-centered prior to being entered into the models. Table 2 includes the Wald X 2 statistics for the main and interaction effects from the GzLM analyses. Whereas linear regressions use F and t -tests to assess the ificance of the model and predictors, GzLMs use z and Wald Women want sex Edgar 2 tests of ificance. For Condom Request Condition, the referent group was the direct condom request condition. When only main effects were entered into the model Table 2Model 1there was a ificant positive main effect of hostility toward women on men's coercive CUR intentions, providing support for Hypothesis 1.
There was a ificant main effect of beverage condition, indicating intoxicated men reported stronger coercive CUR intentions than sober men. Thus, Hypothesis 2 was also supported. The condom request condition contrast, with the direct condom request condition as Women want sex Edgar referent group, indicated that men had stronger coercive CUR intentions following an indirect condom request than following a direct request. Men's coercive CUR intentions did not ificantly differ following an insistent versus direct condom use request.
All two-way interactions were not ificant see Table 2Model 2. As shown in Table 2Model 3, the three-way interaction between beverage condition, indirect vs. Although the three-way interaction among hostility toward women, beverage condition, and insistent vs.Women want sex Edgar
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The Effects of Men's Hostility Toward Women, Acute Alcohol Intoxication, and Women's Condom Request Style on Men's Condom Use Resistance Tactics